sábado, 30 de abril de 2011

The Hydrogen Energy Transition: Cutting Carbon from Transportation

The Hydrogen Energy Transition: Cutting Carbon from Transportation

by: Daniel Sperling, James S. Cannon,

The Hydrogen Energy Transition: Cutting Carbon from Transportation  library.nu #385594

md5: 87486372eccc3c9460d1a519f2a346bc
size: 17.57 MB [ 18421945 bytes ]
type: .pdf
status: normal
language: en [ english ]
submitted by: anonymous


metadata: ( ? )

there is no metadata available to further describe this document

description: ( ? )

By Daniel Sperling, James S. Cannon,

  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • Number Of Pages: 266
  • Publication Date: 2004-06-14
  • Sales Rank: 768713
  • ISBN / ASIN: 0126568812
  • EAN: 9780126568813
  • Binding: Hardcover
  • Manufacturer: Academic Press
  • Studio: Academic Press
  • Average Rating: 3
  • Total Reviews: 1

Book Description:

The Hydrogen Energy Transition addresses the key issues and actions that need to be taken to achieve a changeover to hydrogen power as it relates to vehicles and transportation, and explores whether such a transition is likely, or even possible. Government agencies and leaders in industry recognize the need to utilize hydrogen as an energy source in order to provide cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy for the worlds economies. This book analyzes this need and presents the most up-to-date government, industry, and academic information analyzing the use of hydrogen energy as an alternative fuel.

With contributions from policy makers and researchers in the government, corporate, academic and public interest sectors, The Hydrogen Energy Transition brings together the viewpoints of professionals involved in all aspects of the hydrogen-concerned community. The text addresses key questions regarding the feasibility of transition to hydrogen fuel as a means of satisfying the worlds rapidly growing energy needs. The initiatives set forth in this text will mold the research, development and education efforts for hydrogen that will assist in the rapidly growing transportation needs for automobiles and other vehicles.

* Presentations by the world's leaders in government, industry and academia

* Real-world solutions for the world's current fuel crisis.

* Endorsed by the University of California Transportation Center and Transportation Research Board

Date: 2005-04-28 Rating: 3

Have We Passed Go in Hydrogen Energy for Transport?

The book is a collection of papers from the 2003 IX th Biennial Asilomer Conference, (plus two papers added after) on transportation and energy. It represents the very leading edge of debate and discussion on the petroleum-hydrogen transition and is, in my view, essential and useful reading, and a milestone reference work on the current `state of play'. By having contributions from a diverse range of sectors, the collection has a unique combination of those `for' and those `not-necessarily-against' hydrogen in energy systems and transportation. It is a useful and, by no means one sided, look at the key issues that are and need to be addressed. Some of the more provocative contributions are from those who seriously question whether we have been cajoled into a solution (hydrogen) which could be better dealt with by other means.

Daniel Sperling's introduction highlights key `drivers' of the progress to sustainable energy as increasing carbon dioxide emissions, the depletion of existing oil resources and persistent air pollution. The hindrances to progress are the commitment to the status quo by the automotive and energy industries and policy environments that unwittingly discourage significant change.

As such, the volume is not so much about the challenges to be overcome in making the transition to hydrogen energy, but more with the entire transformation of the distributed energy system of the entire globe and its adaptation to a new form over the next 70-90 years. Each of the diverse contributions looks at different aspects of the transition from coal (electricity) and oil (transportation) to both distributed hydrogen (electricity) and fuel cell power (transportation) systems.

David Scott examines the contrast between distributed electricity systems and a similar network for gaseous hydrogen. While his broad analysis of the long term transition to the hydrogen age is compelling, one kept asking where were the holdups to this gradual transition and how will we overcome them? Kenneth Kurani and others examines the future for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and suggests that, rather than just being a question of changing the fuel type and reducing the running costs, the long term future for such vehicles will be determined by the fusing of several functions into a `mobility-information' platform. Only by doing so will the underlying basic needs be met as well as those of environmental protection and reduced use of fossil fuels.

Taiyo Kawai examines the challenge to build commercial fuel cell hybrid vehicles, and he concludes that the greatest challenge will not be the development of vehicle technology, which is readily adaptable, but rather the cost and development of hydrogen infrastructure. Joan Ogden follows the same line and asks the question: what is the best production and distribution pathway? The answer, she suggests is that it will depend upon both the geographic aspects of hydrogen demand, interdependencies with other energy systems, as well as the severe competition which fuel celled vehicles will face from traditional automobile technologies.

Richard Doctor and John Molburg plea for greater generation of hydrogen from coal in addition to the current use of reformation from natural gas. The high volume of CO2 generated in the process can be geosequestrated but public acceptance and costs are key uncertainties. David Bodde looks at the uncertainties of technology in the transition to hydrogen and suggests that policy can only `guide' in a very general sense; it can't `pick winners'. He sees the nurturing of entrepreneurial activity and private investment in the hydrogen related business as the key role for government.

Chip Schroeder (Proton Energy Systems Inc.) advocates the electrolysis of hydrogen from water as the only practical and sustainable solution for hydrogen fuel generation. But he also recognizes the practical limitations facing his company in developing proton exchange membrane electrolyzers; he sees niche markets with high value revenue generation as being the key to use of such technologies today. He sees no commercial sense in direct competition with established technologies who hold all the market advantages.

Steve Chalk and Lauren Inouye see US government R&D as essential to supporting the technical and economic feasibility of hydrogen power and fuel cells; but it also will need to develop codes and standards, and build human infrastructure necessary to ensure hydrogen safety. James Boyd, in discussing California's experience, asks whether we have learnt enough before embarking upon pathways which will not necessarily deliver what we seek; he sees an absolute necessity in not picking `winners and losers' in the process. A similar answer seems to apply to the European Union approach described by Barend van Engelenburg.

Jerry McNutt and David Rogers look at the lessons learnt from 15 years of alternative fuel programs and the major barriers which hydrogen will also face; lack of refueling infrastructure, high cost, conversion costs, market barriers, safety and reliability and vehicle driving range. They see no easy transition and infrastructure development as the major limiting factor. Bernard Robertson and Loren Beard see similar issues arising as result of DamlierChrysler's experiences with alternative fuel vehicles. Paul Leiby and Jonathan Rubin suggest that market barriers to hydrogen are substantial but that the world market price for oil will be a key `driver'; similarly by having the US sign the Kyoto protocol would have significant impacts and allow the alternative fuel and fuel celled vehicles to be rapidly competitive.

John DeCicco suggests the focus on hydrogen is premature at best, as the technology is not mature enough to justify mandated changes ahead of maturing the policy debate over air quality, global warming and energy security. Paul MacCready likewise suggests that the case for hydrogen fuel may be premature as the development of lithium battery technology has made it a viable source of propulsion energy for a range of mobile sources.

Daniel Sperling and James Cannon summarize the volume and point to the precarious situation which hydrogen based fuel systems find themselves; poorly supported and lacking the essential backing of strict air quality standards, the Kyoto protocols (in the US at least), or broad public support for global warming measures. Most of the short-term and intermediate gains which are desired on these issues he sees as being better provided by hybrid electric vehicles, cleaner combustion engines and cleaner fuels. He suggests that rather than mimicking existing energy distribution systems it may be that the only viable development of hydrogen fuels will be in the form of dispersed and small hydrogen refueling appliances at residences.

I found the volume to be a good summary of the current state of play that is neither too technical nor too simple in its treatment. It provides a useful insight into issues related to the hydrogen transition as well as the factors that are limiting to its wide adoption and development. Suitable for senior undergraduate as well as graduate standards, I recommend the volume as a topical collection of issues and debate which fellow `students' of the global energy scene will find both informative and thought provoking.

(Dr) Ian Lavering
Adjunct Professor
MBT Program UNSW

Nenhum comentário:

Postar um comentário